Frequently Asked Questions
Pediatric Speech Therapy FAQ
Q. How do I know if my child's articulation difficulties are normal or delayed?
Over the years a significant amount of research has been conducted to determine when specific speech skills should be acquired. We know that as a child develops speech, they begin with sounds that are easier to produce and will then move to more difficult sounds. The following is a guide used by many Speech Language Pathologists to determine if sounds are developing within normal time frames:
• By age 3 a child should produce p, m, n, h, and w correctly
• By age 4 a child should produce b, k, g, d, f, and y correctly
• By age 6 a child should produce t, r, l, and the nasal ng correctly
• By age 7 a child should produce sh, ch, the voiceless th, and j correctly
• By age 8 a child should produce v, s, a, and the voiced th correctly.
Q. Is my child too young to receive speech therapy?
A child is never too young to receive speech therapy services. We know that early intervention is the key to success. As a parent, if you feel that your child is experiencing difficulties with speech and language then have them evaluated. A professional in our field will discuss the need for speech therapy and the best course of action to take for your child.
Q. Should my school-aged child receive speech therapy services outside of school?
This is a question that many parents face, and it is a difficult question to answer. Speech services, offered through the school district, are designed to remediate deficits that will impact a child’s academic performance. The problem with therapy offered in schools is that it is often provided in a large group setting for very short time increments. For this reason, many children do not get as much aid as is needed to remediate their deficits in a timely fashion. Speech therapy services, provided in a clinic, are typically one-on-one which provides the child with significantly more individualized attention. There is no harm in providing your child with speech therapy both in school and in a clinic; however, the financial component of providing additional speech therapy must be considered.
Adult Speech Therapy FAQ
Q. What is the progression of recovery following a stroke/TBI?
The most rapid speech and language gains occur in the first 6 months, however recovery can continue for years after a brain injury. The timeline of recovery varies from patient to patient. The goal of speech therapy with this population is to develop or restore speech and language skills necessary for functional daily communication and address and manage the health of the client with feeding/swallowing difficulty.
Q. After a stroke will I be able to eat again?
Each patient’s recovery process is different. However, through dysphagia therapy the speech pathologist’s goal is to return the patient to the least restrictive diet, which will keep the patient healthy.
Aphasia is a language disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language. For most people, these are parts of the left side (hemisphere) of the brain. Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, often as the result of a stroke or head injury, but it may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor. The disorder impairs both the expression and understanding of language as well as reading and writing. Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage.
There are two main types of speech apraxia: acquired apraxia of speech and developmental apraxia of speech. Acquired apraxia of speech can affect a person at any age, although it most typically occurs in adults. It is caused by damage to the parts of the brain that are involved in speaking, and involves the loss or impairment of existing speech abilities. The disorder may result from a stroke, head injury, tumor, or other illness affecting the brain. Acquired apraxia of speech may occur together with muscle weakness affecting speech production (dysarthria) or language difficulties caused by damage to the nervous system (aphasia).
Developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) occurs in children and is present from birth. It appears to affect more boys than girls. This speech disorder goes by several other names, including developmental verbal apraxia, developmental verbal dyspraxia, articulatory apraxia, and childhood apraxia of speech. DAS is different from what is known as a developmental delay of speech, in which a child follows the “typical” path of speech development but does so more slowly than normal.
Dysarthria is when you have difficulty saying words because of problems with the muscles that help you talk.
People with dysphagia have difficulty swallowing and may even experience pain while swallowing (odynophagia). Some people may be completely unable to swallow or may have trouble safely swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. When that happens, eating becomes a challenge. Often, dysphagia makes it difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish the body and can lead to additional serious medical problems.
+ Specific Language Impairment
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language disorder that delays the mastery of language skills in children who have no hearing loss or other developmental delays. SLI is also called developmental language disorder, language delay, or developmental dysphasia. It is one of the most common childhood learning disabilities, affecting approximately 7 to 8 percent of children in kindergarten. The impact of SLI persists into adulthood.
Mary Ann Kennedy
An Islander, Mary Ann holds degrees in Education from the University of Washington and as a Teacher of Visually Impaired Students from Portland State University.
After 15 years as a teacher in the Seattle School District, Mary Ann became an I.A. at Bainbridge High School in the Special Education program. Her work helping a blind student led to her studying and passing the Washington State braille test. She has enjoyed many years of helping local individuals here on Bainbridge. Her students cannot say more wonderful things about Mary Ann as a teacher and person.
Sue Steindorf, Physical Therapist (MSPT) and RYT Yoga Instructor
Places of Study: 200 hour Integral Yoga therapy training with Sonia Sumar, Yoga Fit basic training, BS in Kinesiology, University of Washington and MS in Physical Therapy, Boston University. My daily practice and experiences with students provides endless learning opportunities.
Styles:Integral Yoga blending sacred sounds, postures, pranayama (breathing exercises), Yin yoga, yoga nidra, relaxation and meditation. Classes offered for children, teens and adults. Connections Yoga therapy program facilitated with a psychotherapist is a 6-week class that brings awareness into your life through the body, to make meaningful connections personally and interpersonally.
Focus: Combining the science of physical therapy with the wisdom tradition of yoga, focusing on physical and energetic alignment in order to bring awareness and mindfulness into your life on and off the mat.
Sue is a licensed physical therapist and certified yoga therapist and is available for private therapy that can be billed to medical insurance. Contact her at: firstname.lastname@example.org or 206 499-4728.
Please call for recommendations for physical therapists for adults. 206-451-4308
Catherine Whiting, MS OTR/L – Pediatric Occupational Therapist
Phone: 206-384-7841 Address: 13881 John Street NE Bainbridge Island WA 98110
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Please call for recommendations for occupational therapists for adults. 206-451-4308
Lydia Harrison, M. Ed.
Island Educational Services (IES) has been providing tutoring, educational consultation, and educational support services for families for twenty years on Bainbridge Island. We believe all students truly want to be successful in the classroom and in the community.
While our support services are appropriate for any learner, we are passionate about supporting students who learn differently. Our tutors’ areas of expertise include Learning Disabilities, ADHD, Asperger’s Syndrome, Dyslexia, and Twice Exceptionality. Our work, particularly with middle and high school students, is infused with study skill strategies and techniques. IES also provides in-school learning support at Hyla Middle School, West Sound Academy, and Madrona School.
In addition to personalized tutoring, IES offers educational consulting for Individualized Educational Programs (IEPs) and 504 plans, social skill groups for middle school age students, summer content classes, and workshops for parents, students, and professionals.
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Websites and Helpful Links
Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia: http://www.aphasia.org/
Apraxia (Childrens): http://www.apraxia-kids.org/
American Speech Hearing Association: http://www.asha.org/
Hearing Loss: http://www.hearingloss.org/
Speech Language Therapy: http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/
Brain Injury: http://www.traumaticbraininjury.com/